You really believe that the government and the church makes the ethics? The government follows the peoples ethics (in a free society) so it gets voted in. It does not make the ethics and force people to follow them. Before organized government in the modern sense did people have no moral ethics at all? Ethics come out of the way society interacts with each other - the government lays down these ethics as concrete law and the church instills fear into people saying if they don't follow them they will go to hell. No. Individuals that have a differing ethical standard are evident everywhere - they are labelled as peadaphiles etc. and locked in jail or looked down upon for their views. Society makes the values itself - and society is made up of the people - so in effect the people make the values. And the values they share become the moral code of that society. I don't understand what aesthetics has to do with this.